Report on the Disappearance of Carcinoma/Cancerous Syndrome

Even though medicine has developed tremendously, cancer is still today a chronic and life threatening disease. Recently, patients are turning to traditional therapies such as acupuncture for cancer management as opposed to the aggressive approach of modern medicine.

There has been much research published indicating that acupuncture is beneficial for chemotherapy-induced nausea, vomiting, and cancer pain.Other data also suggests acupuncture might be effective for chemotherapy-induced leukopenia, postchemotherapy fatigue, radiation therapy-induced xerostomia, insomnia, and anxiety.

In this article we introduce six case studies on the disappearance of carcinoma/cancerous syndrome after acupuncture treatment and the use of herbal medicines. The goal of this paper is to show that acupuncture has direct anticancer effects and should be used in the first instance before turning to more aggressive therapies.

Case 1

Non-Small Cell Carcinoma 非小细胞肺癌

Mr. Zihongchon, Age: 58 Johore

File no.: 0206-12

On May 2002, the patient was diagnosed with Lung CA. The CT scan showed the mass was 3.6 x 3.7cm and 5 days was increased to 5.3cm x 4.00cm and had compressed the right middle lobe bronchus and the right pulmonary vessels, the mediastinal lymph nodes had metastases.


Patient : A Medical Professional

Male/Age59/Weight72kg/Frequently Exercise/Vital And Healthy

Non Smoking/No Syndrome of Discomfort/ No Medications

Discovery of the Growth Of The Mass/ Lung Carcinoma About 3.7×3.6cm Located At The Lower Lobe Of The Right Lung During His Journey In Yantai ,China ( May 2002)

The patient repeated the scan in Singapore, which showed that the mass had increased almost 40% compared with the first CT scan in a very short period of time. Furthermore, the patient went to another hospital in Tianjing, Beijing for a further opinion.

He received treatment with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine for 15 days. On the 12th June 2002 CT Scans showed that the growth of carcinoma had reduced again to 70%

DIAGNOSIS With Non-Small Cell Carcinoma 证断为非小细胞肺癌

  • 3.7X3.6 c m Tumor Mass Was Found At middle Lobe Of Right Lung
  • The Density Of Tumor Mass Was Smooth
  • The Marginal Of The Tumor Was Uneven
  • There Were Small Nodules Surrounding The Mass have Been Seen
  • Lung Carcinoma With Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Had Metastasis
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma Non-Small Cell Carcinoma
  • Obstructive Pneumonitis With Mild Cough
5th day after discovery of tumor
The Fifth Day After The Discovery, The Tumor Was Increase To 5.3X4.0 CM About 40% ( 25th May 2002) SINGAPORE.  After 22 Days Of Acupuncture Treatments Showed 70% Reducing In It Side ( Treatment Between 25th May – 16th June 2002)

On 17 June-12 July 2002, he underwent 20 sittings of radiation therapy, after that, the CT scan showed that the mass had continued to reduce in size. The mass almost disappeared after 3 months.

A group of consultants from the oncology department of the 4th Hospital of Beijing advised the patient to continue chemotherapy, but his chief Chinese physician from another hospital gave him Chinese medicine instead.

The 5th CT Scan Showed The Tumor Had Continue to Shrink
The 5th CT Scan Showed The Tumor Had Continue to Shrink

Within 3 years, yearly CT scan showed the lungs were cleared.

The Chinese herbal medicine which the patient took was Qi Bei Fei An Wan Fang, Chansuzhueye, Yadanzi, Chinese Ganoderma Lucidum Essence etc.

Suggested acupoints were E-system Lung and Throat at metacarpal bone, Zusanli (St 36), Dazhui (Du14), Feishu (Ub 13) and Auricular Lung & Throat point. Direct moxibustion on Zusanli (St 36) was performed twice a week.

In addition, food remedy such as white butter, Jew’s ear, Kiwi and Asparagus also aided in recovery.

Case 2

Fibrosarcoma / Tumor 筋瘤硬结/肿瘤

Mr. Fu Age: 31 Singapore File no.: 0303-28

This patient is an interior designer. The patient presented with a Fibrosarcoma of 7cmx3cm in his left medial thigh, near acupoint Xuehai.

Due to the pain, he had difficulty in walking. In the past 12 years, he had undergone 3 operations to remove the recurring cyst.

In May 2003, he was distressed that the cyst recurred but he was reluctant to be hospitalized. In our treatment program we performed micro-cut therapy to remove the discharge.

The acupoints prescribed were local points, using a box system theory, supplemented with acupoints Yinlinquan (Sp9) and Sanyinjiao (Sp6).


Patient: An interior designer Age: 31

In the past 12 years Had undergone

3 operations to remove recurrence of cyst

Which was located left thigh inner media near

Acupoint xuehai about 7cm x 3cm with painful redness and hardness which caused him difficulty in walking

Lung Carcinoma

Patient : A Medical Professional

Male/Age59/Weight72kg/ Frequently Exercise/Vital And Healthy

Non Smoking/No Syndrome of Discomfort/ No Medications

Discovery of the Growth Of The Mass/ Lung Carcinoma About 3.7×3.6cm Located At The Lower Lobe Of The Right Lung During His Journey In Yantai ,China ( May 2002)

  • 3.7X3.6 c m Tumor Mass Was Found At middle Lobe Of Right Lung
  • The Density Of Tumor Mass Was Smooth
  • The Marginal Of The Tumor Was Uneven
  • There Were Small Nodules Surrounding The Mass have Been Seen
  • Lung Carcinoma With Mediastinal Lymph Nodes Had Metastasis
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma Non-Small Cell Carcinoma
  • Obstructive Pneumonitis  With Mild Cough

United Nation’s Interview with Dr T T Ang

Founder of the Chinese Nature Cure Institute in Singapore, Dr. Ang explained how to preserve one’s health and promote self-healing by opting for a holistic approach based on an appropriate and personalized food diet which takes into account seasons and the person’s current own condition, the use of specific herbs, specific exercise, acupuncture, self-massage (acupressure) and meditation.

​He then presented the new Chinese medical approach based on the findings of Professor Yingqing Zhang of Shandong University (China) which demonstrate that the information of the entire organism is contained in embryo cells.

By stimulating precise acupuncture points, it is possible to activate the growth factors which ensure a proper cell differentiation and full development cycle. This makes it theoretically possible to repair damaged tissues and bones, re-establish normal biological cell processes including in tumours, regulate proper hormonal secretions, trigger body growth and balance body functions.

While research is still underway, Dr. Ang showed examples of remarkable results already achieved to-date in treating hard cases and heavy pathologies where all other treatments had failed. This has led to the development of “ECIWO-acupuncture” which complements traditional practice developed over thousands of years (see here-below the fourth question in the interview Dr. Ang gave to UN Special on the occasion of his lecture at the Palais des Nations).

Professor T.T. Ang began studying and exploring acupuncture in 1961, travelling extensively to various institutes and hospitals in Hong Kong and various regions of China. He is among the pioneer research fellows in the new field of ECIWO biology and its applications in medicine. T.T. Ang is also an expert in Taiji and Qigong.

Q:During your lecture you presented Chinese medicine as a holistic approach to health. Can you explain what this means and how people everywhere can apply the related principles to their lives for better health and well-being?

In Chinese medicine, we look at health as an integrated result of our food habits and lifestyles. Hence, our approach to health extends to eating suitable food and herbs, and incorporating exercises in our daily lives, to prevent illness, maintain good health, and heal the body from illness.

Food and herbs can be classified into cold, hot, or neutral properties. Through understanding their unique properties and applying these theories to the food we eat, we can adjust our “Zangfu imbalances” (i.e. imbalances created in some of the body’s main organs), which in turn helps in disease prevention.

Choosing the right exercises, too, can help adjust our bodies’ imbalances. Traditional forms of healing exercises such as Taichi and Qigong meditation are not only well known for their healing properties, but are also a good way to relax.

That’s probably why they are still widely practiced today in China and in many other countries. If need be, health will be restored with the help of other remedies, including the practice of acupuncture.

Could you say a few words on the basic theory of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)?

This theory, Zang Fu, is a description of the main vital organs in the body. Each Zang Fu in the body has an individual meridian which can be found along the hand or the foot.

Each meridian can be further classified under Yin or Yang (which represent opposite properties such as cold/hot, deficiency/excess or interior/exterior). Well-being depends on balancing Yin and Yang at all times. There are twelve regular meridians separated into three groups.

Each group is further divided into two subgroups, each consisting of a pair of meridians. All the meridians have an individual series of acupoints which can be found at different very specific locations in the body.

The first group, Tai Yin, consists of the Lung Meridian on the hand and the Spleen Meridian on the foot. Yang Ming consists of the Large Intestine Meridian on the hand and the Stomach Meridian on the foot. This group often relates to infectious diseases of the digestive system and to environmental or weather-related syndromes.

The second group, Shao Yin, consists of the Heart Meridian on the hand and the Kidney Meridian on the foot. Tai Yang consists of the Small Intestine Meridian on the hand and the Urinary Bladder Meridian on the foot.

This group often relates to circulation, the nervous system, and the reproductive system. The third group, Jue Yin, consists of the Pericardium Meridian on the hand and the Liver Meridian on the foot.

Shao Yang consists of the San Jiao Meridian on the hand and the Gall Bladder Meridian on the foot. This group often relates to the lymphatic system, immunity, the body’s defense system, and to vital systems for detoxification.

When there is a symptom, with TCM you often treat another organ (for example, in the case of a trigeminal pain for a patient, you treat the kidney). Can you explain why?

When a person suffers from illness or presents a series of symptoms, it can be due to an imbalance of a particular Zang Fu/organ within the body. The treatment can be done on the respective meridian or another location away from the affected area.

For example, in the case of trigeminal neuralgia, treatments can be made on the Shao Yang Gall Bladder Meridian, where the acupoints are located on the facial region, or acupoints in Shaoyang San Jiao Meridian, accompanied by the acupoints on Shao Yin Kidney Meridian such as Taixi (K3). The kidney, as a Zang Fu, controls the nerves in the entire body.

What are the ECIWO biology and the bio-holographic law of nature?

ECIWO, or Embryo Containing Information of the Whole Organism, is a biological theory which can be applied to all living organisms.

For example, each seed consists of the information equivalent to an embryo along with the “Life Force” of the plant. The quantity of seeds would reflect the life force of the fruit.

In practice, between a kiwi and an orange, the kiwi will have more life force as it contains more seeds than the orange. By consuming the fruit, a person introduces more life force into his body and will absorb the benefits of the fruit.

Similarly, this theory can be applied to the human body for diagnostic and treatment purposes, for example, to the Acupoints located on the Long Bones System or Metacarpal Bones System.

There are many ways to determine the life force of a human body, such as a person’s voice. In ancient China, before modern technology was available, a gentleman’s family would appoint a matchmaker to observe the number of siblings an ideal future daughter-in-law had, to determine the life force and fertility of the lady.

Between a leaf with many edges and a leaf that is rounded nicely, the many edges are the many life forces it contains.

Bio-holographic law explains the complete biological records found in any natural or- ganism of size and shape. The theory can be observed in the case of a human body, the tongue and the palm, ear, etc. It can be applied to relations between Zang Fu (main organs).

For example, a TCM physician can obtain a pulse diagnosis by palpation of the wrist and radial of the lower arm, also known as Cun Kou.

It is divided into three regions, each reflecting the upper body, such as lung, heart, or blood circulation system; middle part of the body trunk such as liver, gall bladder, stomach, spleen or digestive system; and lower body, such as kidney, urinary bladder, large intestine, or reproductive system.

Tongue diagnosis is another method where the different regions on the tongue reflect the different Zang Fu conditions the region is under. Very often, the above methods of diagnosis are practiced to determine the condition of a human body.

What is the difference between «classical acupuncture» and ECIWO acupuncture»?

In classical acupuncture, the main meridians from Traditional Chinese Medicine theory are used for health and treatment purposes.

In the practice of ECIWO Biology in acupuncture treatments, treatment includes the use of points outside the main meridians, such acupoints from the Long Bone System or Metacarpal Bone System. This often provides greater accuracy in diagnosis and treatment of ailments when used in combination with classical acupuncture techniques.

Immune System Therapy


LING ZHI Mushroom


  • Surgical operation, radiotherapy, chemotherapy are the main means for the treatment of cancer at the present. But side effect or toxicity remains when tumours are resected or controlled. If wrong indications are chosen, patients will suffer serious complications even leading to death.
  • In fact, about 50% tumour patients have not died of cancer itself, but died of the complications of therapy such as serious infections and failures of heart, liver and kidney.
  • Traditional Chinese herbal medicine can restore the balance of patient’s organs, vital energy, blood, yin & yang and support the healthy energy. But the concentration of the herbal extract prepared by stewing, decocting and cooking is usually too low to produce good effect. In the end, the growth and metastasis of tumour cannot be controlled, due to the failure of the therapy.
  • Therefore, a more ideal medicine to eliminate the evils and support the healthy energy potently is needed.
  • It has been shown that Ganoderma Lucidum Essence is able to kill tumor cells directly. There is a high efficiency of causing tumor regression and eradication. Chen Jin Shen has showed that Ganoderma Complex Powder destroys the telomerse of tumor cells resulting in the loss of cell growth capacity. Jiang Et Al from Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica Chinese Academy of Sciences have showed that Ganoderma Lucidum Essence is able to induce DNA single or double chains broken via the inhibition of topoisomerase, exerting its anticancer effect.

The Clinical Investigation of GANODERMA LUCIDUM ESSENCE

  • Ganoderma Lucidum Essence improves the general immune status by stimulating lymphocyte proliferation, activating immune cells to produce cytokines, thus inhibiting and eradicating tumour cells.§         Ganoderma Lucidum Essence protects the general function of the organ system. It increases tissue blood flow and enhances the efficiency of chemotherapy and radiotherapy effects. It reduces the toxic side effects of radiotherapy and chemotherapy.
  • The effect of its “support the healthy energy” can improve patient’s constitution, enhances the effect of chemotherapy and radiotherapy, promotes rehabilitation and prevents cancer relapse and metastasis.
  • Cancer is the local expression of one or several parts of the body from systemic disease. Clinical features of it are very complicated. Ganoderma Lucidum Essence has wide range pharmacological effects, such as analgesic effect, anti-emetic effect, anti-edemic effect, liver-protection effect, leucocyte increasing effect, tumor regression inducing effect and general health improving effect.

The Pharmacological action of man ingredients in Chinese Ganoderma Lucidum Essence :

Triterpense – Triterpenes is the specific ingredient of Ganoderma that contain large amount of it. The functions of triterpenes are purifying blood, protecting liver and improving the capability of the body to tolerate diseases.

Polysacchariders  – Polysaccharides in Ganoderma have the effects of anti-tumors, modulating immune response, lowering levels of blood glucose and lipid. It also has the effect of anti-oxidation and anti-senility.

Polypeptides – Ganoderma provides 18 kinds of amino acids to improve the body ability to fight against diseases.

Organic germanium – Ganoderma contains organic germanium more than other medical plants. Organic germanium is a kind of semi conductive substance, which can modulate abnormal bioelectric potential.

(Source : Shanhai Green Valley Biological Research Institute)

Our Chinese physician will introduce and explain the usage of different kind of Lingzhi according to individual conditions & needs. We also provide diet guidance and knowledge related to Yin & Yang concept. By adjusting the diet habit that is best and beneficial to individual body system.  Different type of LingZhi will be recommended according to individual condition and budget.

Therapeutic Course

In order to optimize the healing process or in critical condition, the Ganoderma Lucidum Essence can be consumed 3 times a day. The dosage can be reduced when condition has improved. Ganoderma Lucidum Essence is recommended to consume continuously for 1-3 years. For preventive measure consumption, please consult your Chinese Physician for the recommended dosage.

ETIOLOGY Etiology of Chinese Medicine In China

Traditional Chinese Medicine

Having existed as a part of humanity through the ages, cancer is now one of the leading killers and cause of poor health in our civilization. History has observed the struggle against cancer by our Chinese ancestors, with their wealth of accumulated experience. There are many records and descriptions of tumors in the long history of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)).

In the inscriptions on oracle bones and tortoise shells, found in the ruins of the Yin Dynasty (1700-1100B.C.), the character ¡§Liu¡¨ (tumor) is mentioned. In Zhou Rituals of the 11th century B. C., it is recorded by physicians who specialised in tumor treatments, who were referred to as ¡§Yang Doctors¡¨.

Today tumors are still called Zhong Yang (inflamed ulcers) in Korea and Japan. Liu Xi, a physician of the Western Han Dynasty (206B. C. ¡V A. D. 25), described tumors as ¡§inflamed with an uneven surface like a rock.¡¨ The term ¡§Yan¡¨ became a synonym for ¡§rock¡¨. This term for the external manifestations of cancer is still used in modern biomedicine.

The archaic descriptions of Changqin, Shixia in the Yellow Emperor¡¦s Canon of Internal Medicine, Jiju in The Classic on Difficulty, and Zhengjia, Shiyi, Fanwei and Yingliu in the General Treaties on Causes and Symptoms of Diseases, about the causes, pathogenesis, signs and symptoms, all resemble the descriptions of tumors of the gastrointestinal organs, liver, spleen, pancreas, uterus, ovaries and thyroid glands, in modern biomedicine.

In 1171, Dongxian Jushi of the Southern Song Dynasty first mentioned the term ¡§Ai¡¨ (cancer) for an inflamed ulcer in his Wei Ji Bao Shu. Since the Ming Dynasty (A.D. 1368-1644), ¡§Ai¡¨ was widely adopted as a general term for cancer of the mammary gland and others. Since then, knowledge about cancer has become more specific regarding its pathogenesis. Valuable experience has been accumulated regarding treatment, which now plays an important role in the modern clinical practice of oncology.

Though still not subdued, cancer has been intensively studied at the bimolecular level. This research indicated the causes of cancer are to be found in the molecular changes of DNA in organic cells being invaded by carcinogenic factors, external or internal. This causes mutations or gradual changes in cellular genes, or the abnormalities of genes due to disturbance in cellular differentiation.

This theory opens a new path for the prevention and treatment of tumors. Possessing the essence of TCM, integrated with modern biomedicine, this new branch of science for the prevention and treatment of tumors, may prove superior to either TCM or western medicine (WM) when applied alone, and will undoubtedly make many contributions to the health of mankind.

Etiology and Pathogenesis of Cancer in TCM

Viewing the human body as an organic whole, TCM believes, the influence of internal and external factors which cause disharmony at certain points, precipitate pathological and physiological changes, which then the manifest themselves at certain locations as tumors, or a local lesion of a general disease. There are no exceptions to the fact that all diseases, including tumors, occur because of external, as well as internal conditions.

The internal factors include weakening of the body¡¦s resistance, disharmony of visceral functions, Qi as well as blood and emotional changes, the lowering of the body¡¦s resistance being of vital importance. The external factors refer to the six abnormal climatic factors or six exogenous evils, of wind, cold, summer heat, dampness, dryness and fire, as well as evil Qi.

Once the body¡¦s resistance decreases, the disease causing factors make use of asthenia of the body, resulting in a subsequent illness. This is the reason TCM states categorically, ¡§Where there is disease, there is asthenia of Qi.¡¨

Based on holistic thinking, TCM stresses disease occurs as a result of combined internal and external causes. TCM therefore treats etiology and pathogenesis as a whole.

1. Emotional Disturbance

TCM embodies changes of spirit and sentiment as the ¡§seven emotions¡¨: pleasure, anger, grief, fear, yearning, sorrow, surprise, all of which are emotional, physiological reactions of an organism towards external changes in its environment. Emotional disturbance refers to reactions, either excessive (excitation) or insufficient (inhibition) which will ultimately lead to disturbances in the flowing of Qi and blood, and the visceral functions, with subsequent illness.

TCM claims rage harms the liver, excessive stimulation harms the heart, grief harms the spleen, great sorrow harms the lungs and fear harms the kidneys. Though not necessarily precise, this belief definitely points out that emotional injury will affect the physiological functions of the Qi, blood, viscera, and channels, lower the body resistance, resulting in disease. The human body is susceptible to cancer when under emotional stress or disturbance. This is mentioned early in Chinese medical classics, such as the Yellow Emperor¡¦s canon of Internal Medicine, and the Golden Mirror of Original Medicine.

2. Damage of the Viscera

Through the flow of Qi and blood, the vital energy circulating along the channels, and the distribution of body fluids, the internal viscera, extremities and other body parts function as a whole and life supporting activities are well maintained. The condition of the internal viscera is closely connected with the occurrence and growth of tumors and subsequent convalescence of the organism.

Disharmony and weakness of visceral functions, usually manifesting abnormalities of the spleen and kidney have a direct bearing on the incidence of tumors. TCM holds that in addition to the digestive and urinary systems the spleen and kidney represent respectively, they include the nervous system, the psyche, endocrine functions and part of the circulatory system. When functions of the spleen and kidney are weakened, manifesting asthenia body resistance, tumors are apt to occur.

3. Disharmony of Qi and Blood

TCM maintains that Qi is the impetus for life supporting activities, while blood, derived from the essence of food and drink (nutrients) through digestion and absorption, is in turn, the material basis for Qi activities. Being mutual transformable and coexisting interdependently, the whole body is nourished by its ceaseless flowing through the channels. Disharmony of Qi and blood occurs when either one of them is defective. Stagnation of Qi can lead to stasis of blood.

Prolonged stagnation of Qi and blood will inevitably lead to the occurrence of a tumor. Wang Qingren, a famous physician of the Qing Dynasty (A. D. 1616-1911), pointed out that abdominal lumps are blood masses, denoting a tumor mass in the abdomen, and are formed of stagnant blood. This provides theoretical background for the principal of activating the blood circulation and eliminating blood masses in tumor therapy. This has long been one of the main therapeutic rules for tumors.

4. The Exogenous Pathogens

TCM holds cancer is related to exogenous pathogens. Seasonal climatic changes include wind, cold, summer heat, dampness, dryness, and fire, called ¡§The six Qi¡¨ which can, when in excess, be the direct etiological factors in cancer. In fact, this agrees with the chemical, physical and biological (bacteria, virus, and parasites) factors of exogenous origin of cancer in modern investigations.

Under their contemporary circumstances, our ancestors, though not expressed explicitly in definite terms or with clear interpretations, made valuable contributions to the understanding of external pathogenic factors causing cancer over a period of 1000 years prior to the practice of western medicine.

5. Inappropriate Diet

Three Categories:

5.1 Excessive Drinking and Hard, Cold, Hot and Roasted Food
The ancient physicians asserted drinkers and those who like hot foods are apt to develop dysphagia. This indicates that the drinking of hard liquor, eating an excess of hot hard, roasted or glutinous food or food difficult to digest, can stimulate and damage the mucous membrane of the esophagus and stomach, and lead to epithelial hyperplasia and eventually canceration.

5.2 Excessive Fish, Dairy Products and Greasy Food
Modern medicine has proven, too much greasy food may produce carcinoma of the colon, ovary or mammary glands. Experiments reveal, when feeding animals with fatty food, the more unsaturated fatty acid the food contains, the higher the incidence of cancer caused by its carcinogenic factors. Some authors claim the high incidence of stomach cancer in Japanese and Icelanders, may be the result of addiction to dry salted fish, pickled vegetables, smoked trout and salmon. The higher incidence of cancer in coastal regions compared to that of inland inhabitants may also result for the same reasons.

5.3 Injury of the Spleen and Stomach, a Result of Irregular Meals
The spleen and stomach will inevitably be injured by irregular meals, unlimited food and drink. The functions of these viscera are adversely affected by abnormal digestion, absorption and distribution of food essence. A disturbance of meridian and visceral function results in circulatory disturbances of Qi and blood, followed by stagnation and ensuing lumps.

Modern medicine concurs with the fact that rapid swallowing during meals or eating in a squatting posture can cause retention of food in the esophagus. Such stimulation of the esophagus leads to inflammation or hyperplasia and canceration of the epithelial cells.

Etiology of Cancer in Modern Medicine

Though the causes of cancer are not yet fully understood, through the vast multi-disciplinary research of the past half century, we have learned there are many factors related to cancer: chemical, physical, biological, inherited, endocrine, psyche, immunological and nutritional, any of which may cause cancer either individually or in combination with other factors.

1. The Chemical Carcinogenic Factors

Investigation of chemical carcinogenic substance began with the establishment of industry and developed rapidly. It has been verified that about one thousand varieties of chemical substances, artificially produced, are carcinogenic. According to some investigators, they represent 80% of the causes of cancer, and are included in the following categories:

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, with 3,4 benzopyrene representing the carcinogenic substance prevalent in coal tar, bitumen, nicotine, creosote, and anthranol; in alkylating agents, aromatic amino compounds, aminoazo dyes; nitrosamine, nitrogencompound (butter yellow), in metalic carcinogenic compounds (cadmium, zinc, arsenals, nickel), and in the phytotoxins (cycasin, fern toxins, safrole, senecionine). The mechanism of the carcinogenic action of these substances is as follows: the direct cause of cellular mutation, causing the body¡¦s metabolism to produce carcinogenic metabolites, or causing a transformation of body enzymes, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which, when entering the body, exert a toxic action on the body cells by the transformation of the enzymes which then activate the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

2. The Physical Carcinogenic Factors

These factors include electrolyte radiation, sunlight and ultraviolet radiation, chronic stimulation and the persistent stimulation of fibrous materials.

Observations and experiments have proven that radiation of whatever origin, such as  radiation and X ¡V ray result in carcinogenic actions of varying degrees, to higher animals. Included among them, the most common are carcinoma of the skin, lungs, thyroid glands, leukemia and malignant lymphoma. Persons exposed to perennial ultraviolet and heat radiation are apt to suffer third degree burns.

About 20-30% of osteosarcoma cases evolve from local wounds. Women who have experienced multiple births with repeated cervical laceration are more susceptible to cervical carcinoma. Cancer of tongue edges and check are usually the result of chronic stimulation by the sharp edges of remaining teeth or unsuitable dentures.

Asbestos and fibreglass are the most common carcinogenic materials. Perennial inhalation of dust containing asbestos will result in extensive fibrosis of the lungs in a number of cases, half of which will eventually terminate in lung carcinoma or pleuro-mesothelioma.

The three common features of physical carcinogenic factors are: a prolonged latent period, low incidence of carcinoma, and definite carcinogenic agents, which can easily be avoided. It seems, therefore, physical factors are not the most serious threatening factors as causes.

3. The Biological Carcinogenic Factors

The most important, the virus deserves attention. As many as 30 types of animal tumors reveal the presence of a virus. In the human body, a virus is also found in African Burkitt¡¦s lymphoma, nasopharyngeal carcinoma, cancer of the mammary gland, liver carcinoma, cervical carcinoma and leukemia. However, the theory of an etiological virus is questionable since not all cancers show the presence of viruses in the tissues.

Many diseases other than cancer, such as lupus erythematosus and nodular leprosy, reveal a virus in their serum. Whether a virus is the root cause or just a coincidental factor in tumor etiology is still open for investigation.

The second category of biological carcinogenic factors is fungus. In nature, mycotoxins, the metabolites from many fungi, are harmful to the nervous, digestive, urinary and blood systems and are potent carcinogenic agents. Such toxins, identified at present include aflatoxin B1,  B2,  G1,  M1, parti-coloured aspertoxins, albomycotoxin, fusarium and purapen toxin.

Under conditions of high temperature and humidity, aspergills flavus grows and proliferates on peanuts, soybean, maize, rice, potato powder and cotton seeds. The toxicity of the fungus produced under these conditions is 75 times higher than that of 2 ¡V methy1 ¡V nitrosamine and can cause liver carcinoma and cancer of many kinds of the viscera in animals. Moreover, the toxicity of this substance can be destroyed only by strong ultraviolet light or temperatures as high as 280 „aC.

In addition parasitosis also causes canceration in certain internal organs. For example, schistosoma japonicum is apt to grow in the human rectum and liver. The incidence of liver and rectum carcinoma in endemic areas of schistosomiasis are rather high, while liver carcinoma is also frequently seen in clonorchiasis patients.

4. The Inherited Factor

Derived from normal cells, tumor cells are the result of mutation of cellular genes, under the influence of extra ¡V or intra ¡V cellular carcinogenic factors. Such cells, once having become tumor cells, posses the indigenous biological features of tumors and will produce progeny with its own defective characteristics and unlimited growth potential. It has been observed clinically and proven some tumors reveal a hereditary tendency. These include multi ¡V neurofibroma, retinoblastoma, rectal ¡V polyp¡¦s syndrome, nephrobalstoma, multilipoma.

Moreover, it is not uncommon to observe carcinoma of the liver, stomach, colon, mammary gland and cervix occurring in members of the same clan or nationality. Although related and with the same habits and environment, members of the same family, when inhabiting a different place, with a different life style, always reveal the same high susceptibility to tumors. This point deserves further research.

5. The Endocrine Factors

Hormones are an essential substance for the regulation of physical growth, and the physiological functions of an organism. Various endocrine glands maintain the internal stability of the human body. Due to the redundant stimulation of certain tissues and organs by some hormones, the result of hormone imbalance causes cancerization and cell proliferation of the affected tissues or cells. Carcinogenic actions have been observed in the ovarian hormone, pituitary gonadotropic hormone, thyrotropic hormone, and lactogenic hormone.

For example, carcinoma of the mammary gland, which has been attributed to the estrogenic hormone, can be ameliorated by castration of the ovaries or administration of progesterone. Men receiving perennial estrogen therapy are also apt to develop carcinoma of the mammary gland. Orchiectomy or estrogen administration yields satisfactory results in prosthetic carcinoma. Oral administration of thyroxin inhibits the secretion of pituitary thyrotropic hormone and is helpful in thyroid cancer treatment. By making use of the fluctuation of hormone secretion and its feed back action, cancers due to endocrine disorders can be treated. This explains the close relationship between cancer and endocrine disturbance.

6. The Nutritional Factor

Affected directly by the nutritional state of the organism, tumors grow at the expense of the host nutrition and even in excess of the normal cell needs. In case of pernicious anemia, B12 deficiency increases the incidence of leukemia and carcinoma of the stomach, vitamin C interrupts the synthesis of nitrosamine in vivo and hence decreases the carcinogenic action of the latter. Ample supplements of microelements, including iodine, copper, zinc, magnesium, molybden and selenium in food, inhibits or retards the growth of tumors in experimental animals.

Epidemiological studies of tumors have shown, in human groups with a high fat, low fibrous tissue diet, the incidence of colon and mammary carcinoma is higher, while among those with low fat and high fibrous tissues diet, the incidence is lower. Restriction of nutrition inhibits the tumor growth, but decreases the nutritional needs of normal cells. This leads to physiologic ¡V pathological changes in the body, lowers the immune function and therefore the body becomes susceptible to tumor invasion. Rational nutrition will maintain good health and help prevent the occurrence of tumors.

7. The Immune Factor

There are two kinds of body resistance to tumor invasion, specific and non-specific, each embraces cellular and humoral immune function. There are three kinds of cells participating in the immune reaction, namely, T ¡V lymphocytes on which the thymus relies, B ¡V lymphocytes derived from bone ¡V marrow and macrophagocytes. Neutralphilic granulocytes and platelets also play a role in immune reaction.

Immune reaction reflects the capacity of the body¡¦s reaction to antigenic materials. Tumor cells are a ¡§foreign body¡¨ with antigenicity, to which the body reacts with the production of antibody and immune cells, which monitor, rejects, resists, and even destroy the tumor cells. Immunity defects, whether congenital or acquired, diminish the reaction of the body¡¦s immunity and may cause cancer to occur.

The factors responsible for the growth or inhibition of tumor cells are very complicated and are closely related to the strength of the body resistance, toxicity of tumor cells and the presence of ¡§close factor¡¨ that counteracts with the body resistance.

8. The Psyche Factor

The stability and balance of the neuro ¡V psyche system, the highest center of the body, has a direct bearing on the development of a tumor.

Clinically, it is not unusual to find tumors in people with poor mental health as well as the ¡§tumor ¡V phobia¡¨ people. For patients with the same cancer, satisfactory results are likely to be obtained in cases where patients are optimistic and fully confident that they can conquer the ailment. It has been estimated that 75% of all cancer cases have a history of poor mental health or melancholy.

In summary, one strong carcinogenic factor alone may cause cancer, but such a circumstance is rarely encountered. In most cases, two or more factors, together with tumor promoting, yet non-carcinogenic factors, are responsible for the cancerization of normal cells under long and repeated stimulation. The cancerization process is affected by various factors including changes of geographical environment, changes of habits, the persistence or interruption of carcinogenic stimulation, the state of the body resistance, the condition of nutrition and the mental state, which can all terminate in either cancer formation, or interruption of cancer development, or total reversion to normal cells. It is essential, therefore, to continue to study the causes, prevention and treatment of human cancer on an overall comprehensive basis.